Basic Intro about Turbocharger, ABS, EBD, & ESC



ABS (Anti-lock Braking System):

The controller (ECU-Electronic Control Unit) reads the signal from each of the speed sensors of the wheel.
As the brakes are suddenly applied by the driver, this makes the wheel to decelerate at a faster rate and may cause the wheel to Lock.
As the ECU reads the signal which indicates the rapid decrease in the speed of the wheel, it sends a signal to the valve which makes the valve close and the pressure to the brake pad reduces and prevents the wheel from locking.
The wheel again starts to accelerate, again the signal sends to the controller, this time it opens the valve, increasing the pressure to the brake pad and brakes are applied, this again reduces the speed of the wheel and tries to make it stop.
This process of applying brakes and releasing it happens 50 times in a second when a driver suddenly applies the brake harder. Due to this, the locking of the wheel is prevented and the skidding of the vehicle eliminated. During braking with the ABS system, the driver can steer the vehicle and reduces the risk of the vehicle collision.

EBD (Electronic BRAKE-FORCE Distribution):

This system monitors each of the individual brakes and wheels. Under braking, it decides which wheel to brake more and which to brake less depending on many conditions like road friction (less priority) and body weight (higher priority) of the car.
Typically most of the braking force is distributed at the front too, as the front is heavier than the rear half of the car. 
In a few systems, immediately after braking more pressure is applied on rear brakes before the effects of weight transfer become apparent and then the brake force is redistributed.

ESC (Electronic Stability Control):

Electronic Stability Control (ESC) helps drivers to avoid crashes by reducing the danger of skidding or losing control as a result of over-steering. ESC becomes active when a driver loses control of their car. It uses computer-controlled technology to apply individual brakes and help bring the car safely back on track, without the danger of fish-tailing.
Australian research shows that ESC reduces the risk of:
Single car crashes by 25%
Single 4WD crashes by 51%
Single car crashes in which the driver was injured by 28%
Single 4WD crashes in which the driver was injured by 66%*
No other active safety device has such potential to reduce single car crashes. In 2016 41 lives lost on Victorian roads could have been saved if the vehicle involved was fitted with ESC.

ESC works by using a number of intelligent sensors that detect any loss of control and automatically apply the brake to the relevant wheel, putting your car back on the intended path.
ESC is of assistance to the driver in:
correcting impending oversteering or understeering;
stabilizing the car during sudden evasive maneuvers;
enhancing handling on gravel patches, such as road shoulders; and
improving traction on slippery or icy roads.
Not all ESC systems are identical. The hardware is similar, but there are variations in how ESC systems are programmed to respond once the loss of control is detected.

Are there different names for ESC?
Yes. Some of the names that we know about in Australia are:
. Electronic Stability Program (ESP) – Holden, HSV, Hyundai, Kia, Mercedes Benz, Jeep, . Renault, Saab, Chrysler, Citroen, Peugeot, Ssangyong
. Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) – Ford, FPV, BMW, Mazda, Land Rover,  Jaguar
. Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) – Suzuki, Toyota
. Vehicle Dynamic Control (VDC)- Nissan, Subaru, Alfa Romeo
. Dynamic Stability And Traction Control (DSTC)- Volvo
. Electronic Stabilisation Program (ESP) – Audi, Volkswagen
. Active Stability Control (ASC) – Mitsubishi
. Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA)- Honda
. Vehicle Stability/Swerve Control (VSC) – Lexus
. Automatic Stability Control + Traction (ASC+T) – Mini
. Electronic Stability Programme (ESP) – Dodge, Skoda
. Maserati Stability Program (MSP)- Maserati
. Porsche Stability Management – Porsche
. Stability and Traction Control – Fiat

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